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Footnotes and References 

  1. Brain Trauma Foundation. Traumatic Brain Injury Statistics. Brain Trauma Foundation; 2013. Google Scholar

  2. reports an estimated 150,000 cases of colorectal cancer in the US in 2021

  3. estimates 281,550 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 49,290 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.

  4. estimates about 236,000 cases of lung cancer in the US in 2021

  5. estimates about 249,000 cases of prostate cancer in the US in 2021

  6. Total cases in footnotes 2-5 equal about 965,000

  7. reports approximately 2.9 million TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations and deaths in 2014

  8. Lo, J., et. al., from the Rehabilitation Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, Archives of Physician Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2021; 124 reports multiple studies of TBI patients not returning the preinjury levels 1 year post-injury ranging from 33% to 50%

  9. Victoroff, J, Bigler E., Concussion and Traumatic Encephalopathy (Kindle Locations 16800-17000), Cambridge University Press, Kindle Edition. In a review of over 150 animal and human studies make a rough estimate that 40% of TBI patients do not return to preinjury levels 1 year post-injury.

  10. Based on 2.8 million cases of TBI (removing deaths) and 40% of such cases resulting in chronic TBI yields annual cases of chronic TBI of 1,120,000.

  11. The 1.12 million cases of chronic TBI (see footnote 10.) exceed the annual cases reported in footnote 6.

  12. Lo, op. cit. reports studies with lifetime risk ranging from 21.7% to 42.5%.  We assume 30%.

  13. estimates lifetime risk of lung cancer at 6%

  14. estimates lifetime risk of colon cancer to about 4%

  15. CDC,

  16. Rabinowitz, A; Watanabe, T. Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms after mTBI, Journal Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp76-83.

cTBI & Kids

17. Dinet, Virginie; Petry, Klaus G.; Badaut, Jerome; Brain-Immune Interactions and Neuroinflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2019 []

18. Ibid.

19. Narad, Megan, et al; Behavioral Health Service Utilization and Unmet Need After Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood, Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, July/August 2019;. 40(6):451–457. []

20. Centers for Disease Control, Report to Congress, The Management of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children: Opportunities for Action, 2018,p5.,  [


cTBI & Veterans

21. Stecker, T; Shiner, B; Watts, B; Jones, M; Conner, K; Treatment-Seeking Barriers for Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Who Screen Positive for PTSD, Psychiatry Online []
22. Waters, Joel. A Systematic Review of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) In U.s. Veteran’s Returning From Afghanistan and Iraq To Investigate Opportunities For Improving Social Support To Reduce PTSD Symptoms In Student Veterans Attending Postsecondary Institutions. 2019. []
23. Gardner et al; Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated with Increased of Parkinson Disease in Military Veterans: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Study, Neurology, April 18, 2017; 88 (16 Supplement) (
24. Waters, Joel op. cit.


cTBI & Sports

31. Rowson S, Duma SM. Brain injury prediction: Assessing the combined probability of concussion using linear and rotational head acceleration. Ann Biomed Eng 2013;41: 873– 882. []
32. Victoroff, Jeff; Bigler, Erin D.. Concussion and Traumatic Encephalopathy (Kindle Locations 8787-8789). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.
33. Lincoln, A. et. al., Trends in Concussion Incidence in High School Sports: A Prospective 11-Year Study, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, January 29, 2011, []
34. Hiploylee, C. et al; Longitudinal Study of Postconcussion Syndrome: Not Everyone Recovers, Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol 34: pp 1511-1523, April 15, 2017 []


cTBI & Accidents

41. Harvey, L; Close, J; Traumatic brain injury in older adults: characteristics, causes and consequences, Injury, Volume 44, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 277- []
42. Gerber, L; Quanhong, N; Hartl, R; Ghajar, J; Impact of falls on early mortality from severe traumatic brain injury, Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes volume 3, July 30, 2009, Article number: 9 (2009) []


cTBI & Other Illness

51. Saef, I et al.; Concussion and Risk of Chronic Medical and Behavioral Health Comorbidities, Journal of Neurotrauma, Volume 38, No. 13, June 10, 2021 [https:]
52. Smith, D; Johnson, V; Stewart, W; Nature Reviews Neurology, volume 9, pages211–221(2013) []
53. Beart, P; Robinson, M; Rattray, M; Maragakis, N; Neurodegenerative Diseases, Pathology, Mechanisms, and Potential Therapeutic Targets, part of the Advances in Neurobiology book series (NEUROBIOL, volume 15) []

1. Only includes TBIs which involved Emergency Department visits or hospitalization. (
2. Nguyen R, Fiest KM, McChesney J, Kwon C-S, Jette N, Frolkis AD, et al. The international incidence of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Neurol Sci 2016; 43: 774– 785. (
3. Victoroff, Jeff; Bigler, Erin D.. Concussion and Traumatic Encephalopathy (Kindle Locations 285-286). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.
4. Rabinowitz, A; Watanabe, T; Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms After mTBI, J Head Trauma Rehabil, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 76-83 5.Kids

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